What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a type of cancer disease that occurs when the cells of the breast grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. The types of breast cancer vary due to the cells that turn cancerous.

Breast cancer is very common among women. Each year 1 in 8 women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast cancer can be seen at any age but most commonly women over the age of 50′ are affected. Rarely, breast cancer can also be seen among men. For the success of the treatment, it is important to detect breast cancer in its early stages.

Stage 0 is the level of the noninvasive and stage 4 is the level of the invasive kind of tumor. The non-invasive breast cancer cells are the ones that stay within the boundaries of the ducts. They don’t attack the surrounding fatty and connective tissues of the breast. The non-Invasive Breast Cancer can both be cancerous and noncancerous. The most common types of breast cancers are “Ductal Carcinoma” and “Lobular Carcinoma”. The stage of “ductal carcinoma in situ” and “lobular carcinoma in situ” types of breast cancer is 0 (zero). 

Stage 1-2-3 types of breast cancer have subtitles as A-B or/and C. These levels describe the spread amount of the cancer cells and how big is the tissue. Stage 4 is the advanced and metastatic stage of breast cancer and describes the existence of the cancerous cells spread to other organs. 

What are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer? 

Breast cancer symptoms change from person to person but “a painless lump in the breast” is generally the first sign. It is important to go on a routine mammogram as some individuals notice no sign. 

Common signs and symptoms of breast cancer include; 

  • Any change in the size, shape, or contour of the breast.
  • A mass or a lump that is just like a pea in the breast or armpit, 
  • A lump, thickening, or swelling in or near the breast that persists during the menstrual cycle,
  • A change in the look on the breast, breast skin, or nipple just like irritation or dimpling… 
  • Redness or flaky skin on the breast or nipple,
  • Existing a nipple discharge including blood-stained or clear fluid,  
  • Pain in the nipple area or anywhere around the breast. 

Treatments for Breast Cancer in Turkey (Türkiye)

Breast cancer treatments in Turkey are determined due to the type of breast cancer, its stage, grade, and size. The overall health conditions of the individual and the sensitivity of the cancer cells to hormones are additional factors that affect the type of treatment.  

In Turkey, most breast cancer cases are treated with surgery and continue with additional treatment after surgery. Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation are the most common treatments that individuals take after surgery. In some cases, the doctor may consider offering chemotherapy before the surgery. If the breast cancer spread to other parts of the body, then the physicians may recommend targeted drug therapy.

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