What is Carcinoma?
Carcinoma is one of the most common types of cancer that develops in epithelial tissue, internal passageways in the body, and skin that line the outer or inner surface of the organs. About 80% to 90% of all cancers are diagnosed as carcinoma. Skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, kidneys, and pancreas… are the most common organs that malignant tumors occur as carcinoma.
Carcinomas can develop in many parts of the body, but the most common ones are; “Basal cell carcinoma”, “Squamous cell carcinoma”, “Renal cell carcinoma”, and “Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)”, “Invasive ductal carcinoma” and “Adenocarcinoma”.
The “basal cell carcinoma” is the type of skin cancer that occurs in the cells and covers the deepest part of the skin’s outer layer. If not treated quickly it may spread to other parts of the body.
Squamous cell carcinoma can be found in all parts of the body but most commonly it shows up on the skin. That’s the reason it is known as “skin cancer”. Squamous cell carcinoma that is caused by the sun generally develops in the face, ears, neck, lips, and on the backs of the hands.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the type of breast cancer that takes place inside the ducts of the breast. Ductal carcinoma in situ is not spreadable and easy to treat.
Invasive ductal carcinoma is another type of breast cancer that starts in the ducts of the breast. Invasive ductal carcinoma can spread through the lymph system and bloodstream, therefore it is not easy to treat.
Adenocarcinoma is a type of carcinoma that can occur anywhere in the body. Adenocarcinoma develops in the glandular cells which produce mucus and fluids that line the organs. The stomach, prostate, lung, pancreatic, breast, and colorectal are the most common organs where adenocarcinoma may occur.
What are the Symptoms of Carcinomas?
The symptoms of carcinomas change due to the placement of the tumor. All the types of carcinomas have different effects on the body… For example;
- Open sores, red patches, pink growths, and shiny bumps or scars are the most common symptoms of basal cell carcinoma,
- Scaly red patches, open sores, crusts, bleeding, and warts are the most common symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma,
- Thickened breast skin, redness on the breast, swelling in one breast, pain, dimpling, nipple discharge, and lumps in the underarm are the most common symptoms of invasive ductal carcinoma.
In general, the symptoms that the individuals have to pay attention is,
- Abnormal periods (changes in the cycle) or pelvic pain
- Significant changes in toilet habits
- Feeling bloated for more than two weeks
- Changes in breast
- Chronic coughing
- Chronic headache
- Difficulty swallowing
- Bruises in unusual places
- Frequent fevers or infections
- Persistent sores or lesions in the mouth,
- Changes in skin,
- Persistent pain anywhere in the body
- Persistent fatigue
- Postmenopausal bleeding
- Stomach pain or nausea
- Unexplained weight loss
Treatments for Carcinomas in Turkey (Türkiye)
The treatment of carcinoma in Turkey varies due to the location, size, stage, and grade of the tumor. In general, carcinoma is usually treated with; Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, immunotherapy, and hormonal therapy. The aim of each therapy is different and can be combined.
Chemotherapy is planned to eliminate the fast-growing cancer cells. In general, chemotherapy is used after surgery or before surgery.
Radiation therapy is generally planned to ease suffering and improve the quality of life. Radiation therapy is generally used after the surgery.
As with any other cancer treatment, surgery is the most effective treatment for carcinoma in Turkey. Surgery offers long-term survival in the early stages of carcinoma.
Immunotherapy treatment helps to activate the immune system to fight cancer cells.
Hormonal therapy for carcinoma in Turkey is used to block hormone production and modify the behavior of hormones.
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